A Dermoid Ovarian Cyst is a complex ovarian cyst condition, usually benign, characterized by mature ectodermal elements, having a fibrous wall lined with stratified epithelium, and containing keratinous material, hair, and sometimes material such as bone, tooth, or nerve tissue that is found in the ovary.
Dermoid ovarian cysts are called as well simply “dermoids” or ovarian teratomas. Dermoids may not show any symptoms during early development
Having liquid as well as solid components makes a dermoid ovarian cyst one of the three types of “complex ovarian cyst”; the other two are Endometioma and Cystadenomas.
This type of complex ovarian cyst is created using basic cells known as ova; these cells are common to the human egg. The cells within the ova are the basic building blocks of every type of tissue that a human body can grow, which is why this kind of ovarian cyst can contain bone, tooth, hair or even nerve tissue inside.
Dermoid ovarian cyst is rarely cancerous, approximately only 2 percent of these types of complex ovarian cysts are found to be malignant, but they can twist (known as ovarian torsion) causing a lot of harm to the ovary and a lot of pain to the woman who suffers of this condition. This type of cysts can become inflamed causing severe abdominal pain.
Since Dermoids contents can vary a lot the ultrasound image can vary, so the best option to diagnose this kind of complex ovarian cyst is with a CT Scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can show the presence of fat and dense calcifications.
Dermoid ovarian cysts are perhaps the most bizarre type of complex ovarian cyst. They can grow as big as 15 centimeters across. Women at their reproductive age are at higher risk, but it can affect to women of any age. Due to the complexity for this type of complex ovarian cyst the most common treatment is surgery in order to remove them and avoid further complications. It is preferably to remove the dermoid cyst in one piece. Normally with a laparoscopic surgery will be enough, this procedure will only require a small incision and introduce small surgical instruments to get the cyst removed.
If the ovarian cyst is too big already then an open surgery may be needed in order to remove the ovarian cyst. Both procedures can lead to infection, but the chances of complications due to this kind of procedures are low and normally with proper care and following the instructions of the doctors, it is possible to get back to the normal activities after a month if the procedure was a more invasive open surgery.